Silver Protein

Reduction of Viral Load in AIDS Patients with Intravenous Mild Silver Protein Three Case Reports
Ward Dean, MD, et. al.

Abstract:
Mild Silver Protein (MSP) has been used since the 19th century as an anti-microbial agent, with a wide range of bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. This paper reviews the historical use of mild silver protein in medicine, and documents the recent effectiveness of intravenous MSP to cause a dramatic reduction in viralload of three patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+).

Introduction:
Silver (Ag) is atomic element number 47, with an atomic weight of 108. It is one of the so-called  heavy metals,  along with lead, mercury, cadmium and gold. Unlike its heavy metal cousins, silver is surprisingly non-toxic to humans and animals, and has a long history of successful medical and public health use dating back 6000 years. Silver has been used to speed wound healing, treat infections, purify water and preserve beverages. The ancient Macedonians covered wounds with silver plates to speed healing (1). N.R. Thompson (2) noted that

The germicidal properties of silver, although not recognized as such, have been utilized since the times of the ancient Mediterranean and Asiatic cultures, references being made to the use of silver vessels to prevent spoilage of beverages, and silver foil or plates in the surgical treatment of wounds and broken bones.
 

The modern era of silver usage began in 1893 with C. Von Nageli s report of the first systematic investigation into the lethal effects of metals [especially silver] towards bacteria and lower life forms. To primitive life forms, oligodynamic (solutions in which the metal ion concentration is many orders of magnitude below that which would be lethal to higher life forms) silver is as toxic as the most powerful chemical disinfectants. Coupled with its relative harmlessness to animal life, this gives it great potential
as a disinfectant (2). Silver was one of the mainstays of medical practice in Europe and America during the period from 1900 until the beginning of the modern antibiotic era, which began in the 1940s with the introduction of sulfa drugs and penicillin.

Various forms of silver were used to treat literally hundreds of ailments, including pneumonia, tuberculosis and pleurisy (3), gonorrhea and syphilis, (4) wounds, leg ulcers, pustular eczema, impetigo and boils (4). It has been used in acute meningitis and epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis (3), Mediterranean fever, erysipelas, cystitis, typhus, typhoid fever, and tonsillitis (3), dacryocystitis, corneal ulcers, conjunctivitis and blepharitis (5), and various forms of septicemia, including puerperal fever, peritonitis and
post-abortion septicemia (3, 6). This list does not even begin to exhaust the published medical uses for silver in Europe and America, from 1900-1940.

In 1939, Hill and Pillsbury (7) listed 94 different proprietary silver preparations in use at that time. With the development of the antibiotic era, however, silver rapidly fell into
disuse and into the medical memory hole. By the late 1980s, antibiotics were thought to have so succeeded in controlling/eradicating most microbial diseases, that medical
researchers and pharmaceutical companies seriously slowed research into new antibiotics, thinking that there was no longer any need for newer and better antibiotics. Yet by the 1990s the picture began to change again.

Some common and dangerous bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, particularly the strains found in hospitals, are now known to be resistant to all but vancomycin, and soon are expected to be vancomycin-resistant too (8,9). In 1992 the Centers for Disease Control(8) reported that 13,300 hospital patients died in the U.S. of bacterial infections that resisted the administered antibiotics. It is interesting to note that silver, both in liquid solution and as an airborne-aerosol, has been known since 1887 to be extremely toxic to Anthrax spores (1,10-12).

 



Silver is unique among antimicrobial agents in its broad spectrum of action. It has been claimed to kill some 650 different disease organisms (13). It effectively kills micro-organisms of all major types: gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spore-forming bacteria, fungus/yeasts, viruses and protozoal parasites. Silver sulfadiazine (SS) is used almost universally in hospitals to prevent serious burn infections (11). It kills dozens of different bacteria, (11,14,15), 95% of 72 strains of herpes virus (16), as well
as the malaria-causing Plasmodium berghei (17). Silver sulfadiazine also kills various yeasts, including several Aspergillus varieties, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus nigricans and 50 different clinical isolates of Candida albicans (18). It is widely reported in the medical literature that various forms of silver, often at surprisingly low concentrations, routinely kill bacteria that are known to be antibiotic resistant (11,13,19,20).

Electrically-generated colloidal silver [Ag(e)] has been shown to kill dozens of bacteria. This includes Providencia stuartii, an organism already resistant in the 1970s to all antibiotics except amikacin (19), as well as two strains of Enterobacter cloacae that were isolated from burn patients and were relatively resistant even to Silver sulfadiazine (20). Electrically-generated colloidal silver has also proved adept at killing various yeast/fungus species at very low silver concentrations, including Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Aspergillus niger (20). This form of silver has been shown to kill cysts of the common water-borne protozoal parasite Entamoeba histolytica, and has also killed the protozoon Paramecium when exposed to 2.2 ppm silver, as well as the protozoa Varicella at 5.9 ppm silver (1). It was even somewhat effective in killing Poliovirus in swimming pool water, at the extremely low concentration of 0.015mg silver per liter of water (15 parts per billion) (21). Pioneering silver researcher Dr. Henry Margraf stated that silver is the best all round germ-fighter we have (13).

Historically, silver has been used in 20th-Century medicine in a wide variety of forms. It has been used as silver salts (e.g. silver nitrate, silver phosphate, silver iodide) and Silver compounds (e.g. silver sulfadiazine, silver arsphenamine, zinc-silver allantoinate) (11). Many physicians using silver in the first half of the 20th century preferred a colloidal form of silver, either chemically or electrically produced (3,11). Combining silver with protein (mild silver protein [MSP], and strong silver protein [SSP]) results in an enhanced spectrum of action. (13, 22) Thus, both modern science and early 1900's medical practice support the therapeutic use of either colloidal silver or mild silver protein (MSP)(11).

Current Studies
In 1994, William McFarland, a Louisiana-based businessman was introduced to MSP by a physician friend. He began to use it personally for minor viral infections, and
recommended it to friends for oral and topical use for a variety of clinical conditions. As he became convinced of its efficacy for both viral and bacterial infections, he speculated that it might have positive effects in ameliorating serious, difficult-to-treat infectious diseases, and that it might be even more effective when administered
intravenously. He arranged for the first course of infusions to be administered in Mexico, with subsequent infusions in New Orleans. This paper reports on preliminary results of intravenous MSP in three HIV+ patients.

Materials and Methods
In 1997, McFarland recruited three subjects with HIV to participate in clinical trials with MSP. The initial protocol involved progressively increasing amounts and concentrations administered orally for 30-60 days, followed by a series of intravenous infusions in concentrations ranging from 40 ppm to 1,500 ppm. Medical records for the three subjects were obtained, to as great a degree as possible, from the personal physicians of the subjects, and from the No AIDS Task Force at Charity Hospital in New Orleans, LA.

MSP 40 and 1,500 ppm were provided by Discovery Experimental and Development, Inc. MSP 400 was manufactured by Natrition, Inc. Subjects were started on oral MSP 40 ppm and advanced to 400 ppm at standard dosages consisting of several teaspoons daily in divided doses for approximately one month prior to administering it intravenously. Oral MSP 400 ppm was continued throughout the test period.

The first phase of this small trial was conducted in Mexico. One hundred twenty ml of MSP in concentrations of 40, 400, and 1,500 ppm respectively were given to each of 2 subjects [AP and RC], one time each, in a carrier solution of 500 cc _ normal saline, to which 10 cc of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was added. Each infusion was
given over two-three hours. The first three infusions were administered in Mexico by VWL. Subsequent infusions were administered in the U.S.

An adverse effect noted by all subjects to a greater or lesser degree was a Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction, lasting from 2-8 hours. This reaction, which usually started from 1-4 hours after the conclusion of an infusion, included nausea, vomiting, fever, myalgias, and headache. The reaction appeared to decrease with repeated infusions.

The patients were monitored twenty-four hours a day for 5-7 days following each IV infusion, and once a week thereafter, via office visits and almost daily telephone conversations.

Results:

Case 1
AP was a white male, born in 1967. Records from Charity Hospital reveal that he was diagnosed with HIV in February, 1993. At that time, he weighed 137 pounds, and his only abnormal physical finding was swollen inguinal lymph nodes. In April, 1995, AP was treated for nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and shingles. In August, 1996, he began to complain of anxiety, diarrhea, and weight loss, for which he began to seek more regular medical treatment. Intermittent courses of antibiotics had been prescribed for diarrhea, acyclovir for shingles, and AZT. However, AP seldom completed a course of any of these medications.

At the time he entered the experimental trial with MSP in October 1997, AP was not receiving any medication at all. He weighed 132 lbs, and was unable to walk without assistance due to fatigue and weakness. His viral load was over 750,000 RNA copies/ml'the maximum detectable limit of the instrument.

AP received his first IV infusion on 3 December, 1997. His treatment chronology is outlined in Table I. After his only infusion of 1500 ppm MSP on 7 December, AP suffered what was interpreted at the time as a severe Herxheimer reaction. However, the symptoms were more severe than usual, and the weakness and severe myalgias persisted for days, instead of hours. A complete blood count on 16 December revealed that AP's hemoglobin had dropped to 8.9 g/dl, and his hematocrit to 26.9 (Table II). Nevertheless, by the fourth of January, AP reported to the office demanding that he be given another infusion.

Because of the severity of his previous reaction, the dosage was reduced again to MSP 40 ppm, which caused no adverse effects, followed by an infusion the following day with MSP 400 ppm. By January 8, AP's hemogram had rebounded to 11.1 g/dl, and his hematocrit to 31.9 %.

Thirty five days after beginning MSP treatment, AP's viral load was 39,000 RNA copies/ml. One month later, with no additional infusions, the viral load was down to 400 RNA copies/ml (the lowest detectable limit of the instrument) (Table I and Fig. 1).

AP continued to improve clinically, left New Orleans in February of 1998, and was unfortunately lost to follow-up. Although he apparently underwent extensive laboratory testing at Charity Hospital's No AIDS Task Force, McFarland was unable to obtain further documentation beyond that in Table 1.

Case 2
RC was a Puerto Rican male, born in 1950. He did not smoke cigarettes or marijuana, drank alcohol moderately, and ate a healthy diet. His male roommate died of
AIDS/HIV at Charity Hospital in 1986 at the age of 30. RC's medical history includes Hepatitis A and B. He had been a waiter most of his adult life, and also worked as a carpenter with his father on weekends, renovating houses.

In 1987, RC enrolled in Charity Hospital's No Aids Task Force where he tested positive for HIV. No viral load or T cell count data are obtainable. He had been under the impression that he had only two years to live. For the next ten years, he kept waiting to die. In the summer of 1997, he began to notice a decrease in energy, and increased
requirement for sleep, causing him to discontinue his work as a carpenter. He volunteered for the experimental MSP treatment program in November, 1997.

RC received five IV infusions on the same dates and dosages as AP (Table I)'the first three in Mexico, and the last two in the U.S. He received a sixth infusion of MSP 400 ppm on 27 February in the U.S. He continued on oral MSP 400 ppm until June of 1998, when he discontinued participation in the program. Results of the decrease
in viral load are shown in Figure 2. Changes in his other laboratory studies are shown in Table 3.

RC noted a dramatic restoration of his energy levels and returned to his former occupation as a waiter, where he usually worked up to two shifts a day from 12:00 noon until 12:00 or 1:00 in the morning. Because of his restored energy levels, RC no longer felt a need to visit McFarland's office. Because he would not return to the physician's office, McFarland went to his place of employment with a physician friend every weekend in March and April of 1998. RC promised to obtain additional records from the State of Louisiana, but he unfortunately never followed through.

Case 3
GH was a white male, born in 1948, who had been HIV+ since 1985. He began taking oral MSP 400 ppm 1 tsp three times daily on 4 April 1998. His HIV-1 RNA (viral load) test on 9 June, 1998 was 13,752 RNA copies/ml. On 10 June, 1998 he was given one infusion of MSP 400 ppm. He continued oral MSP through the end of July,
1998. On July 20, a second HIV-1 RNA test was performed, which revealed a dramatic drop of viral load to 2,215 RNA copies/ml (Fig. 3).

Discussion
The data in this study are admittedly fragmentary. There are several reasons for this. McFarland, as stated previously, was a businessman. He had no scientific or medical training other than that which he obtained as an avid reader of medical and health-related books, and what he gleaned from discussions with his physician and scientist friends. However, he believed that if he could demonstrate its safety and efficacy on a few severely ill patients, the medical community would pick up the baton and continue the studies of this innovative and relatively inexpensive therapy under more controlled conditions.

To prove his case, he chose one of the most difficult-to-treat conditions there is'AIDS. He set up a protocol based on consultations with physicians in Mexico, Cuba, and the U.S., and advertised for experimental subjects. The infusions in Mexico were under the supervision of one of us (VW-L), and the infusions in the U.S. were under the supervision of another contributor (MM).

Patient information and laboratory data are derived largely from patient records and laboratory reports held by the No-Aids Task Force. Unfortunately, despite signed records release forms from each subject, and intervention by attorneys, the administrators of the No Aids Task Force were reluctant to cooperate.

Also, the subjects in the study were less than responsible, and were not interested in continuing treatment beyond the point that they felt well enough to return to their former destructive lifestyles. Consequently, they were erratic in following through with their treatments, and did not greatly assist with obtaining follow-up records.

All three subjects experienced a dramatic reversal in what had been their rapidly-deteriorating clinical condition. This change was so dramatic, in fact, that all felt well
enough to return to their former hedonistic lifestyles. Unfortunately, they did not maintain the positive lifestyle changes recommended by their physicians, and two of the subjects (AP and GH) moved out of town. RC is actively employed, but declines further treatment as he does not feel ill. The last McFarland heard from AP and GH was that
they also did not feel ill, and saw no need to continue their treatments. As far as we know, AP is still alive, and two (RC and GH) are actively employed.

The only adverse effects noted during the course of any of the subjects' treatment were the Herxheimer-like reactions from the MSP 400 ppm infusions, and the severe pancytopenia experienced by AP from the MSP 1500 ppm. Whether this reaction was a true Herxheimer reaction, or an inflammatory/toxic effect of the silver has
not been determined. However, any pathology appeared to be self-limiting and rapidly reversible, as demonstrated by AP's rapid rebound in hematological status following the 1,500 ppm infusion, despite an intervening 400 ppm infusion (Table I and Figure 1).

As fragmentary and incomplete as these data and records are, we believe the reductions in viral load in these subjects are so dramatic that they deserve publication. The well documented results are certainly no coincidence, and cannot be ignored.

Conclusions
First, IV MSP 400 ppm appears to be a safe, effective virucidal agent in HIV-positive patients. Second, it is also clear that high concentrations are probably toxic, as demonstrated by the dramatic drop in APs hematological status following the 1500-ppm infusion. Third, and most important, is the apparent ability of MSP to dramatically reduce the viral load and cause clinical reversals of rapidly deteriorating patients with HIV. Although the optimum dosage and frequency of infusions has not been determined, 1 or 2 infusions weekly appears to be a safe and effective regimen. We believe the frequency should be adjusted downward should severe Herxheimer-like reactions occur.

In future trials, we hope to see long-term follow-up, and to observe how low and for how long the viral load can be reduced, and to monitor changes in CD4-CD8 ratios. However, such changes take more time than these patients were willing to give. 

See also: Silver Protein Review and  Silver Protein

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